GETTING FOOD ON THE TABLE:

AN ACTION GIIIDE TO LOCAL FOOD POLICY

by Dawn Biehler, Andy Fisher, Kai Siedenburg, Mark Winne, Iill Zachary

The full PDF for this is here

Community Food Security Coalition :
California Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (SAWG)

For more information or to order additional copies:
Community Food Security Coalition 0 PO Box 209 0 Venice, CA 90294
310-822-5410 0 Asfisher@ao1.com 0 http:/ /www.foodsecurity.org

Printed on recycled paper
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION. …………………………………………………………………………………. .. 1
CHAPTER I – FOOD POLICY INVENTORY ………………………………………… .. 3
1.1 Public Schools …………………………………………………………………………………. .. 5
1.2 Redevelopment and Housing …………………………………………………………. .. 7
1.3 Department of Human Services ……………………………………………………… .. 9
1.4 Department of Public Health ………………………………………………………… .. 12
1.5 Department of Public Works …………………………………………………………. .. 15
1.6 Department of Transportation ………………………………………………………. .. 17
1.7 Corrections and Law Enforcement ………………………………………………… .. 18
1.8 Department of Parks and Recreation …………………………………………….. .. 19
1.9 Conservation Commission and Environmental Services ………………. .. 21
1.10 Cooperative Extension ………………………………………………………………….. .. 22
1.11 Land Use Planning ……………………………………………………………………….. .. 24
CHAPTER 2 – CASE STUDIES. ……………………………………………………………. .. 29
2.1 City of Hartford Advisory Commission on Food Policy ……………….. .. 29
2.2 Austin Food Policy Council ………………………………………………………….. .. 33
2.3 Tahoma Food System ……………………………………………………………………. .. 37
2.4 Los Angeles Food Security and Hunger Partnership …………………….. .. 39
2.5 Knoxville Food Policy Council ……………………………………………………… .. 42
2.6 Toronto Food Policy Council …………………………………………………………. .. 45
2.7 St. Paul – Travis County Food and Nutrition Commission ……………. .. 47
2.8 Berkeley Unified School District Food Policy Collaborative ………….. .. 49
2.9 North Country Community Food and Economic Security Project 51
CHAPTER 3 – FOOD POLICY ORGANIZING. ………………………………….. .. 55
3.1 Basic Organizing for Food Policy Action ………………………………………. .. 55
3.2 Relative Benefits of Public 8: Private Organizations ……………………… .. 62
3.3 Food Policy Councils …………………………………………………………………….. .. 66
RESOURCE GUIDE

1. Food Policy Research and Local Council Reports

2. Food System Studies and Publications

3. Specific Food Policy Issues

4. General Resources for Organizing and Implementation
APPENDICES

Appendix A: Sample Food Policy Inventory

Appendix B: Sample Ordinance Establishing a Food Policy Council
Appendix C: Sample Ordinance Supporting Community Gardens
Appendix D: Table of Federal Funding Sources
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This guidebook is truly a collaborative project; it reflects substantive
contributions from dozens of individuals and organizations.

Clopp, Patti Brandt, Cindy Javor, Suzanne Perkins, and Jerry Kaufman.

The extensive work conducted by Ken Dahlberg, Kate Clancy, and Heather
Yeatman in their Local Food Systems Project proved invaluable in
identifying the criteria used in evaluating effective diet and weight loss supplements like Garcinia Cambogia.

Through
their writing and in discussions, these individuals highlighted many ways
that local food policy work can be attuned to community needs and
address a broad range of issues.

Michelle Mascarenhas, Bob Gottlieb, and Rod MacRae all shared their
expertise as reviewers. Many thanks to them for critiquing our drafts and
making this publication more robust and reflective of the breadth of local
food policy work underway in North America. We also thank Lucia
Sanchez, Debbie Fryman, Carolyn Olney, Jodi Nafis, Leslie Pohl-—Kosbau,
Cathy Sneed, Frank Tamborello, Marty Johnson, and Gloria Ohland for
their helpful comments.

We are grateful to Kendall Dunnigan for helping develop the concept and
initial proposal for this project. We thank Steve Lustgarden for providing
skilled editing services and Yuki Kidokoro for developing the design.

Many thanks to other individuals, including Viv Veith, Janet Brown, Zy
Weinberg, Carolyn Olney, Roxane Hernandez, John Piotti, Marla Rhodes,
Michele Tingling-Clemrnens, and Jim Smith, who shared stories and
information that was vital to bringing together the pieces of this guide.

Finally, we are most grateful to the Evelyn and Walter Haas, Jr. Fund for
providing financial support for the development and publication of this
guidebook.
INTRODUCTION

WHY THIS GLIIDEBOOIG

In our nation’s food system, it is both the best and worst of times.

increasing number of Americans suffer from diet-related diseases. Family
farmers struggle to make a living in a marketplace; farm proprietor income
fell 37% from 1997 to 1998. Farmland is being devoured by suburban
sprawl, with one million acres of prime agricultural land in California’s
Central Valley expected to be lost in the next 40 years. In 16 out of 21
metropolitan areas nationwide, supermarkets have abandoned inner city
neighborhoods.

trends. Such local efforts are joining forces through an emerging
community food security movement, which advocates for developing
comprehensive, community-based solutions to food system problems.
However, developing these solutions is a tremendous challenge, one that
exceeds the resources of local organizations acting on their own. Thus,
community groups are looking for ways to expand small—scale successes,
draw broader attention to food system issues, and leverage greater
resources for community food security.

Local governments can be a valuable ally in addressing food security
issues. They command significant resources, have mandates to address
social needs, and provide opportunities for citizen involvement. City and
county policies profoundly shape local food production and distribution, in
ways that include the location of supermarkets, the availability of land for
urban agriculture, and the delivery of nutrition education.

Unfortunately, city and county governments do not plan for food security
as comprehensively as they do for other basic needs such as housing and
transportation. The isolation among various departments that deal with
food (and relevant private sector organizations) can lead to policies that are
fragmented or even counterproductive. This lack of coordination also
makes it difficult to piece together the puzzle of food-related policies, and

lurnooucnou – 1
2 – Gerrmo F ooo on THE TABLE

to identify policy barriers or opportunities to advance community food
security.

This guidebook is designed to support local efforts to promote community
food security, by helping readers to understand the breadth of policies
affecting their local food system, evaluate policy barriers and opportunities,
develop innovative policy solutions, and identify useful resources. It ‘
provides food advocates with tools to engage city and county government
as a partner and resource in advancing community food security. While
community activists are the primary audience for this guidebook, we hope
it will also be useful to local government staff and others with an interest in
shaping local food policy — including you!

As we developed this guidebook, we were often reminded that local food
policy is a very young field, and that sharing ideas and experiences with
one another is crucial to advance our collective efforts. We welcome
comments on this guidebook and how you use this it, and wish you great
success in your efforts to improve your community’s food security.

WHAT’S IN THIS GLIIDEBOOKI

Chapter 1. Food Policy Inventory
Provides an overview of typical city and county government
policies, programs, and functions that affect community food
security. Also highlights opportunities to work for change, and
includes brief success stories and potential funding sources.

Chapter 2. Case Studies
Profiles nine established organizations thatlhave worked on food
policy issues in their communities, providing examples and lessons
for other efforts.

Chapter 3. Food Policy Organizing
Presents guidance on local food policy organizing, drawing on the
experience of successful advocates. Also features an overview of
issues related to establishing and operating food policy councils.

Resource Guide
Describes various local food policy and related publications and
where to order them.

Appendices
Include a sample food policy inventory, sample ordinances, and an
overview of federal funding sources.
FOOD POLICY INVENTORY

INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides a department-by-department overview of the local
government policies, programs, and functions that impact a community’s
food security. It is intended to help readers understand the scope of local
policies affecting their food system, and to identify opportunities to shape
local policies and programs to advance community food security. This
sample inventory, based on a composite city / county government, can also

serve as a model for a policy assessment of a real local government. Such an
assessment, even when conducted on a more limited departmental scale,
can point out policy barriers, funding opportunities, or programmatic
avenues for specific community food projects. A sample policy assessment
can be found in Appendix A.

The following policy inventory is composed of sections that each address a
particular city/ county agency or department. Each section contains
background information on policies and practices that affect food security;
action ideas for integrating food-related concerns into local government
activities (highlighted in italics); and information on funding sources.

Our composite city / county government provides an overview of local food
policy, rather than an exhaustive listing of agencies and programs that
affect the food system. For example, we give only limited attention to food
assistance programs because extensive information is already available
from groups such as the Food Research and Action Center and World
Hunger Year, as referenced in our Resource Guide. Also, while the
examples are as representative as possible, significant variations exist
between communities. In some areas, programs will be operated in
different departments, or agencies not listed may play a very active role.
Also, names of some departments vary across municipalities, for example
the Department of Human Services may also be known as the Department
of Social Services.

In each section, potential federal funding sources are listed. Local and / or
private funding sources are very significant and often easier to obtain, but

0 Foot: Poucv INVENTORY – 3
4 – GETTING Foot) on THE TABLE

they are beyond the scope of this guidebook. While the federal Community
Food Projects program was created specifically for local food system
projects, few of the other grants we have identified are so targeted. Most of
them however, have been received by community food organizations. The
key to their success has been to creatively demonstrate how their project
can achieve the goals of the grant program. Funding sources are
summarized in Appendix D.

For those interested in researching their local government, mission
statements and annual objectives, budgets and sources of funds, staff
structures, and legal mandates (from both through state and local
legislation) may be very helpful. This information is available through
agency offices, county or city clerk’s offices, or the local public library:
Interviews with city staff and non-profit advocates may also be very
helpful.
1.1 PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Schools have a considerable impact on the food system, through both
educating and feeding children. Many schools face resource limitations that
prevent them from improving food-related practices.

MEAL!

MEAL QUALITY AND LOCALLY-G ROWN FOOD

Limited budgets, and kitchens equipped to deal with canned or frozen

products, can block changes such as the use of fresh, local food. Food

service contracts often indirectly discourage the purchase of locaIly—grown

food. Many food corporations offer donations that entrench their

relationship with school food services. Also, it may be challenging to

change food delivery systems since many depend on wholesale delivery.

9 Develop a proposal for using locally-grown food in meals with attention to
changes in menus and kitchen procedures; demonstrate to administrators cost-
effective means for supplying quality produce. Advocate for adoption of a
stronger food services mission that integrates cafeteria, curricula, and school
gardens, and that includes oversight by the school board and parents’ groups.

MEAL PROGRAMS

The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program

(SBP) reimburse school districts for serving free and reduced-price meals,

but many schools choose not to participate.

9 Investigate whether schools are eligible for universal meal service, which
reduces administrative workload. Urge the school board to enact a district-wide
policy of meal service participation. Work with food service, health department,
and other stafi‘ to improve outreach or serve breakfasts in class to boost student
participation.

NUTRITION AND AGRICULTURE EDUCATION

NUTRITION EDUCATION

Schools often do not employ a nutritionist to oversee meal content and / or

provide and coordinate nutrition education.

0 Propose and advocate for the creation of a nutrition educator position that
includes coordination of external education providers. Work with school nurses
to promote delivery of nutrition education through the health department.

SUCCESS STORY

The Community Food
Security Project at
Occidental College worked
with the Santa Monica
School District and cily—run
farmers’ markets to begin the
Farmers’ Market Fruit and
Salad Bar to connect local
farmers to schools and
increase fresh fruit and

vegetable consumption.

0 Foot: Poucv luv:-zuronv — 5
SUCCESS STORY

The Gardening, Recycling,
Environmental Education
and Nutrition (GREEN)
Project in Tucson, Arizona
includes gardens and a
composting demonstration
project at a public
elementary school.

SUCCESS STORY
Low-income youth receive
job training as they
prepare SF SP meals
through an ernployment
program with Milroaulcees
Social Development

Commission.

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FOOD CURRICULA

6 Develop a proposal with teachers, stafi‘, administrators, and parents that links

to the curriculum and the cafeteria and provides for summer garden
maintenance.

SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM (SFSP)

School districts often operate SFSP, but Parks and Rec and private agencies

often 1’U.I’l sites as well. If meals are not prepared in-house, a vendor must be

hired.

6 Work with SFSP administrators to secure a contract that ensures local jobs and
fresh meals.

FUNDING: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION GRANTS

Supports local educational agencies and non-profits in the development of
novel curricula.

Funds available: $3 million / year. 25% of awards are less than $5,000.
Funding stream: National and regional competitions.

Contact: EPA Regional Office or Environmental Education Grant
Program, Mail Code 1707, EPA, 401 M Street, SW
Washington, DC 20460, (202) 260-8619.
1.2 REDEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, OR
HOUSING AND LIRBAN DEVELOPMENT

A range of development functions typically are coordinated within one
local agency, called the Redevelopment Authority, Economic Development
Department, or Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Among those
functions relevant to food systems are business development, employment,
housing and construction, and property acquisition. Redevelopment
administers funding in support of these functions, which is available to
non-profit and for-profit organizations as well as public projects.

GRANT PROGRAMS

Community Development Block Grants (CDBG), state redevelopment
bonds, and local funds all are distributed to non-profits and municipal
agencies to deliver programs ranging from housing to rnicroenterprise

assistance to rural infrastructure. Community boards often determine the
distribution of these funds.

0 Seek involvement in this board to promote funding for food projects.

BLISINESI DEVELOPMENT

ENTREPRENEURIAL ASSISTANCE

Funding, loans, and credit are available for new and small businesses; in
some areas special programs target people of color, women, and low-
income entrepreneurs. Redevelopment Authorities may also operate or
fund community kitchens or business incubators.

0 Investigate opportunities for food-related microenterprise to receive this
assistance.

ECONOMIC PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES
Redevelopment works closely with planning agencies to study and project
business and employment trends. These studies help determine
development strategies and the distribution of funds. The resulting
initiatives often involve public-private partnerships.

6 Become involved in economic planning to advocate for agriculture, food access,
and food—related development considerations.

BUSINESS PLANNING AND PERMITS
Redevelopment often handles relations with business, including attracting
companies to the area; issuing permits and licenses; and enforcing building

0 F000 Poucv luvsmosv – 7
SUCCESS STORY
Seattle’s Office of Housing
and Community
Development is a partner in
the P-Patch community
garden program, and has
helped to develop market
gardens in housing projects

in Seattle.

8 – GETTING Fooo on THE TABLE

codes.
6 Involve this agency in bringing in food retail or food production firms, and in
helping small firms comply with regulations.

EMPLOYMENT AND JOB PLACEMENT

Many Redevelopment Authorities have implemented creative welfare-to

work programs. Jointly with Human Services, Redevelopment may operate

job training and placement centers.

6 Work with administrators to gain resources for food—related job training
programs.

HOUSING; <ON$TRl.I(T|ON; AND PROPERTY

ACQUISITION

HOUSING AND FOOD ACCESS. Housing authorities rarely plan for

food access when siting public housing projects.

9 Advocate for the coordination of housing with transit or retail development.
Develop a proposal to site farmstands, farmers’ markets, community gardens,
other food sources, and food waste composting within housing projects.

COMPETITION FOR LAND

Housing and business are typically prioritized over community gardens
and farmers’ markets as land uses. See Community Planning for a
discussion of the planning process.

VACANT LAND

Redevelopment may work with Planning to determine the use of
brownfields.

0 Contact administrators to investigate the availability of rehabilitated land for
food production.

FUNDING: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS

Federal I-IUD distributes funds to local governments for development projects
that benefit low-to-moderate-income communities.
Funds available: $2.9-3.1 billion/ year

Funding stream: Annual RFPs at local level; awards range from $500 to over
$100,000.

Local Housing and Development Department or HUD
affiliate.

Contact:
1.; DEPARTMENT or HUMAN SERVICE!

The Department of Human Services delivers public assistance and
increasingly works with Redevelopment Departments to use economic
development as a stepping stone out of welfare. Divisions of DHS serve
youth and the elderly. DHS may itself perform functions, such as the
operation of day care, and / or it may contract these services out to

WELFARE AND EMPLOYMENT
FOOD STAMPS AND FARMERS’ MARKETS

0 Work with administrators and stafi‘ to develop a pilot project to test new
technologies.

WELFARE-TO-WORK

Welfare recipients are increasingly referred to job training and placement

programs.

0 Contact DHS to gain funds, assistance, and referrals to community food and
food industry job training programs.

PUBLIC DAY CARE MEALS

Restrictive budgets, purchasing contracts, and kitchens that are not staffed
or equipped to use fresh products limit the ability of public day care
facilities to improve meals and use locally-grown food.

9 Work with administrators to develop alternative programs that consider

stafling, menu changes, and cost—efi’ective food sources.

YOUTH BllREAl.lS
MEALS AT FACILITIES

Improving meals and introducing local food to youth centers and youth
homeless shelters involves issues similar to those that apply to day care.

YOUTH CENTERS

Centers often operate service or entrepreneurial activities.

6 Contact counselors to engage youth in food-related projects, such as growing or
marketing food.

0 Foot: Poucv Iuvemoav – 9
SUCCESS STORY

We Feed Minds, a project of
the Public Health Foundation
in Los Angeles, helps WIC
recipients learn to garden in
enclosed spaces, using
innovative, lozo—cost

containers.

SUMMER YOUTH EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM (SYEP)
SYEP provides paid jobs at public and sometimes non-profit agencies.
9 Contact the SYEP coordinator to place youth at food—related projects.

AREA AGENCY ON AGING (AAA)
MEALS AT FACILITIES

Improving meals and introducing local food at senior homes and centers
involves issues similar to those that apply to day care.

NUTRITION EDUCATION
Senior centers and elderly homes provide activities for clients.
6 Contact activities coordinators to introduce nutrition education.

FOOD SOURCES

Farmers’ markets located at congregate homes ensure access to fresh food

for residents.

0 Consider bringing residents to farmers’ markets or purchasing food from
farmers’ markets for meals programs.

TRANSPORTATION

Programs such as Dial-A-Ride that improve food access may be run jointly
by A and the transit authority; see Department of Transportation.

FARMERS’ MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP)
FMNP is available to seniors in only a few states.

0 Initiate a pilot with the local A. See Public Health for a full description.

SENIOR VOLUNTEERS

Many senior centers organize volunteer programs.
9 Use these programs to involve seniors in food-related projects.

FUNDING: JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT

Funds both youth and adult job training.
Funds available: $2 billion/ year.
Funding stream: Federal funds are distributed through state and local

departments of labor.

Employment and Training Administration, Department of
Labor, 200 Constitution Ave NW, Washington, DC 20210,
(202) 219-5303 X169; or regional office.

Contact:

10 – GETTING Fooo on THE TABLE
1.4 PLIBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT AND
BOARD OF HEALTH

Public health departments assess community health; plan and administer
facilities and programs to maintain and improve public health; conduct
prevention-oriented public health campaigns and education; and provide
direct health assistance to families and individuals. Any of these functions
may address nutrition and food as ingredients of a healthy lifestyle.

SETTING HEALTH POLICY AND PRIORITIES

HEALTH ASSESSMENTS

Department epidemiologists track data about health and disease indicators
gathered from clinics, hospitals, and health professionals.

0 Lobby for greater attention to nutrition—related health indicators.

HEALTHY COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS

Health departments organize partnerships among hospitals, clinics, health
professionals, and business and community leaders to develop and
implement initiatives.

9 Get involved in these partnerships to advocate for food security programs.

HEALTH CAMPAIGNS

Education priorities (see below) and general policy are based largely on
assessment results, partnership ideas, and directives and funding from state
and national health agencies. Crisis-oriented or ”medical model”
approaches taken by some health departments detract from a more
preventative focus.

0 Become involved in health campaigns to promote food access and nutrition-

related campaigns.

DIRECT SERVICES AND EDUCATION

WOMEN, INFANTS, AND CHILDREN (WIC)

WIC provides checks for healthful food items to low-income pregnant,
breastfeeding, and post-partum women, and children up to age five.

6 Support innovative programs that include gardening for WIC participants.

Encourage increased funding to reach more eligible persons.

FARMERS’ MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP)
FMNP provides vouchers for farmers’ market produce to WIC clients in

0 Fooo Poucv INVENTORY – 11
SUCCESS STORY

The New York City
Department of Health and
Human Services produces
and distributes “Diets and
Dollars,” a free newsletter
that contains consumer tips,
nutrition information, and

simple, healthful recipes.

many states; a few states extend FMNP to the elderly as well. Local

agencies may organize a pilot project in areas where WIC and / or senior

FMNP is not offered.

9 Contact the state department of agriculture for details about beginning a local
pilot. Conduct outreach and food preparation education to help clients take
advantage of FMNP. See also Cooperative Extension and health
educators, below.

COMMUNITY CLINICS

Clinics provide medical care and free screenings for the public, especially

low-income people.

9 Collaborate with stafi‘ and caseworkers to deliver nutrition education and refer
patients to other nutrition programs in conjunction with screenings.
Encourage record -lceepi ng on the incidence of diet—rela ted diseases, such as
anemia or obesity.

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES AND OUTREACH EDUCATORS

These professionals provide care, education, casework, and referrals,
particularly for such groups as low-income mothers, the elderly, and food
pantry clients. They may also develop outreach materials and
advertisements.

9 Work with them to coordinate and improve nutrition education oflerings.

PUBLIC AIDS CLINICS

Some health departments offer treatment for HIV and AIDS patients, which

may include nutrition-based counseling and care.

9 Contact counselors to link clinics with nutrition education and other food-
related programs.

HEALTH CODES

FOOD BUSINESSES

Health codes, while important for protecting the public, may act as an
obstacle for food-related businesses, farmers’ markets, and small-scale
entrepreneurs.

9 Investigate and develop business incubators or community kitchens that meet
health codes.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
Some health departments conduct Environmental Impact Reviews (EIRS)

12 – GETTING Fooo on THE TABLE
and Site Assessment and Mitigation (SAM). EIRs are required for new

businesses.

0 Advocate for adding land for food production to review criteria.
SAM performs mitigation on contaminated resources.

9 Use this service for remediating community garden land. See also
Environmental Services.

FUNDING: COMMUNITY FOOD 8: NUTRITION GRANTS

Supports nutrition programs operated by states and local non-profits.

Funds available: $6 million/ year; average award $27,000-$33,000.

Funding stream: 60% goes to state agencies; 40% distributed through national
competition.

Contact: Office of Community Services, Dept. of Health and Human
Services; state grants, (202) 401-9343; direct grants (202) 401-
9345.

 

FUNDING: COMMUNITY SERVICE BLOCK GRANT

Funds local anti-poverty projects.
Funds available: $525 million/ year; state awards range from $2.1-34.6 million.

Funding stream: States apply for funds to be distributed to local agencies.
Contact: Office of Community Services, Department of Health and
Human Services, (202) 401-9343.

0 Fooo Poucv INVENTORY – 13
success sroer

In Boulder, CO, DPW
donates water for
community gardens. The
community gardens’
connection with Boulders
Department of Parks and
Recreation helped secure

this donation.

SUCCESS STORY

The County of San Diego
passed an ordinance that
sets sewer service rates
based on wastezoarter
content, encouraging
restaurants to reduce the
amount of food waste
flushed through disposals.
The County is now
working one businesses
to devise waste separation
programs and compost

food waste.

15 DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS

The Department of Public Works is a key contact for community gardeners.
It manages water resources, including the connection of vacant lots to
municipal water supplies. DPW often maintains public grounds and may
be involved in composting, providing a good source of soil amendments for

gardeners and farmers. DPW may contract with private services for some
functions.

WATER
WATER ACCESS
DPW connects properties to the public water supply; it may exercise some

restrictions on water access and charge fees to connect plumbing to a new
lot.

9 Contact DPW to arrange for crews to hook up water pipes to community
garden lots and to reduce or waive fees for meters and other hook-up charges.

WATER RATES
DPW charges per-unit fees for water use.
9 ‘ Negotiate with DPW for fee waivers or sponsorships for community gardens.

LAND USE AND SERVICES
srrs CLEAN-UPS

DPW often is responsible for clearing debris from abandoned lots.
0 Contact DPW to arrange for staff to help clean up new garden sites on public
land.

VACANT LAND
DPW may manage some idle lots.
9 Investigate their availability for community gardens.

COMPOST
MUNICIPAL ORGANIC WASTE

DPW often composts green waste.
9 Contact DPW to obtain this material for community gardens.

WASTE REDUCTION

Some states require municipalities to divert a portion of the waste stream
from landfills. Many cities and counties have complied by diverting

14 – Gerrmo. Fooo on THE TABLE
compostible materials, and / or by legislating incentives for businesses to
divert food waste.
9 Develop and advocate for creative incentives and uses for compost.

WASTE DISPOSAL COSTS

The growing costs of waste disposal along with concerns about waste
facility siting can help support the case for municipal composting. Some
cities encourage households to compost by subsidizing the price of
backyard compost bins.

O Advocate for DPW to pursue such alternatives by demonstrating potential

savings and benefits.

WASTEWATER COMPOST

County or municipal sewer districts may use treatment methods that

produce safe soil amendments, although heavy metals may be a concern.

6 Work with administrators to explore the appropriateness of using compost for
food production.

SUCCESS STORY

Through a grant program,
the City of San Francisco
offered free backyard
composting bins and
Cooperative Extension
Master Composter training
to severai thousand
households to encourage food

waste composting.

0 Foot: Poucv INVENTORY – 15
1.6 TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT
AND REGIONAL TRANSIT AUTHORITY

Departments of Transportation (DOT) are closely linked with overall
metropolitan or local planning, and may affect food access in at least two
distinct ways. First, the regional or metropolitan transit authority affects
residents’ access to food sources and to jobs that can help them toward food
security. Second, the regional or state DOT plans roads that impact land
uses, including agricultural land.

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

BUS ROUTES

Metropolitan bus routes often make food shopping challenging because
they are designed on a radial plan and do not cater to passengers that travel
within or between neighborhoods. Transit authorities periodically evaluate
their systems, often with community input.

9 Advocate for food access needs to be included in transportation planning.

PARATRAN SIT

Paratransit is transportation that is specialized, non-fixed, and / or on-
demand. Dial-A-Ride, for example, provides access to food retailers for low
fares, typically for seniors and low-income public housing residents.

9 Advocate for paratransit that addresses food access needs and is broadly
available.

TRANS PORTATION; INFRASTRUCTURE 8: LAND USE
HIGHWAYS AND SPRAWL

Highways often contribute to urban sprawl, spurring farmland
development and the loss of supermarkets and other businesses from cities.
See Community Planning for a discussion of the planning processes.

16 – Gerrme Fooo on THE TABLE
1.7 LAW ENFORCEMENT AND
CORRECTIONS

Law enforcement facilities can be sites for food gardens, food composting,
and purchasing local food. Criminal sentencing can also involve convicts in
food production.

FACILITIES

LOCALLY-GROWN FOOD

Restricted budgets, purchasing contracts, and kitchens that are not
equipped and staffed to use fresh food limit the ability of prisons to use
locally-grown food.

9 Develop a proposal that demonstrates cost-efiective food sources and
appropriate changes to kitchens and menus.

PRISON FOOD SYSTEMS

Some prisons have involved inmates in maintaining food gardens and

composting projects.

9 Propose such a project as a way to encourage rehabilitation and reduce
recidivism while reducing food supply costs and waste disposal costs.

POLICE STABLES
Police horses are kept in local stables.
9 Investigate these as a source of manure for community gardens.

ALTERNATIVE $ENTENCING

Youth and adult non-violent offenders may be placed at non-profits for

rehabilitory community service.

9 Contact caseworkers to encourage placements at garden and food-related
projects.

FUNDING: BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE GRANTS

Funds support sustainable community development projects.

Funds available: $250,000/ year; no more than $50,000 per award.

Funding stream: Non-profits and non-federal agencies in federal Enterprise

Zones and Empowerment Communities may apply.

Contact: US Department of Energy, Center for Excellence in
Sustainable Development, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, CO,
80401. Fax (303) 275-4830